What is samkhya yoga? And how different is from hatha yoga?
Sankhya – Yoga
The word “sankhya” means “number”. This is a system that gives an analytical enumeration of the principles of the universe. Therefore, such a name is completely adequate. The designation of the sankhya is also applied to philosophical research.
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Thanks to the penetration of this system of philosophy, you can find the means of getting rid of the three kinds of suffering – adhyatmik (from fever and other diseases), adhidaivik (from thunder, cold, heat, rain, etc.) and adhibhautik (from animals, scorpions and t .p.), as well as from the disease of rebirth. Suffering is a difficulty. It becomes in the way of practicing yoga and achieving liberation. Kapila Muni gives knowledge of the twenty-five principles that destroy suffering. According to the Sankhya philosophy, one who knows twenty-five principles attains liberation. The final deliverance from the three kinds of suffering is the goal of life.
The sankhya system is called nirishvara (without the Ruler) sankhya. She is atheistic. Sankhyas do not recognize Ishvara, or God. The creation created by Prakriti has its own existence, independent of any connection with the specific Purusha with which it is united. Therefore, the sankhyas say that there is no need for a reasonable Creator of the world and even for any higher power. This is mistake. Prakriti is always under the control of the Lord. She can not do anything by herself. The Lord casts a glance at Prakriti, and only then does she begin to move and begin to create. Prakriti is devoid of intelligence. Only an intelligent Creator can have a meaningful plan for the universe. Prakriti is only an assistant (sakahari). This is the theory of Vedanta.
Sankhya accepts the theory of evolution and involution. The cause and effect are the undeveloped and developed state of one and the same substance. There is no such thing as general destruction. In the destruction, the consequence is connected with the cause, and that’s all.
The Sankhya describes the four categories in terms of their productive capacity: (1) productive (prakriti); (2) productive and produced (prakriti vikriti), (3) produced (anubhyyarupa). This classification includes all twenty-five principles, or tattvas. Prakriti, nature, or pradhana (chapter) is purely productive. She is the root of everything. It is not produced. It is a creative force, a producer. Seven principles, intellect (buddhi), selfishness and five tattvas, or subtle rudiments, etc., are produced and productive.
The mind is productive when the ego is derived from it. It is productive in itself, when it is derived from Prakriti. Egoism is produced, derived from the intellect, and is productive as a source of five subtle rudiments or tanmatr. Subtle rudiments came from selfishness. In this respect, they are produced. They give rise to five elements, in this respect they are productive. Produced – sixteen. These are the ten organs, the mind and the five elements. They are unproductive, because none of them is able to give birth to a substance that is essentially different from themselves. Purusha, or spirit, or soul, is neither produced nor productive. He is devoid of attributes.
Prakriti and Purusha are beginningless (anadi). They are infinite (ananta). The inability to distinguish them is the cause of birth and death. The distinction between Prakriti and Purusha brings liberation (mukti). Both the Purusha and the Prakriti are real (cam). The term “sankya” means “vicara” (meditation). Purusha is unattached. He is conscious, omnipresent, eternal. Prakriti acts and enjoys. Prakriti is meant for enjoying Purusha. Souls are innumerable, sankhyas do not believe in Ishwara (Lord).
The term “Prakriti” refers to what is primary, what is created. This word came from “pra” and “cree”, “to do.” This is reminiscent of the Vedantist maya. This is the one root of the universe. It’s just dead matter, which, thanks to the gunas, has a certain potential. She is devoid of reason. This is a bead of three threads. The three strands are the gunas.
Prakriti has no cause, but is the cause of all consequences. It is called pradhana, or head, because all the consequences are based on it, it is the root of the universe and all objects. Prakriti is independent and causeless, whereas products are causal and dependent. This is the basis of all objective existence. Mediation carries out selfishness or self-image as an actor, is a product of Prakriti, but not a Purusha, or a soul that always remains a silent witness.
According to the Sankhya philosophy, nature consists of three modes, or forces, called sattva (purity, light, harmony), rajas (passion, activity, movement) and tamas (inertia, darkness, inaction). Sattva is an equilibrium. Where sattva dominates, there is peace and tranquility. Rajas is an activity expressed as sympathy and antipathy, love, hatred or affection.
In each person there are three gunas. Sometimes it is dominated by sattva, then it is balanced and calm. He meditates and meditates. Sometimes it is dominated by rajas, and it performs various mundane activities. He is passionate and active. Sometimes dominated by tamas, then he becomes lazy, sluggish, inactive and irresponsible. Tamas creates an illusion. Again, in most people, one of the gunas predominates. The satvic man is virtuous. He leads a pure and pious life. Rajasic person is passionate and active. The tamasic person is sluggish and inactive.
When sattva dominates, it overcomes rajas and tamas. When rajas dominate, he conquers sattva and tamas. When dominated by tamas, he conquers rajas and sattva.
The three gunas are always inseparable. They support each other. They are mixed with each other. They are directly connected like a flame, oil and a wick in a lamp. They form the very substance of Prakriti. All objects consist of three gunas. Gunas affect each other. Then there is evolution, or manifestation. Destruction is only unmanifest. Gunas are objects. Purusha is a witness, a subject. Prakriti develops under the influence of the Purusha. The Mahat, or the great (intellect), the cause of the whole world is the first product of the evolution of Prakriti. The ego (ahamkara) comes after the mind. Mediation carries out the ego. This is the principle that generates individuality. The mind is born of the ego. He performs the specified will through the organs of action (kama-indriyas). He reflexes and doubts (sankalpa-vikalpa). Information coming through the senses, it synthesizes as a result of perception. The mind takes part in both perception and action. In the sankhya system, there is no separate prana tattva. The system of Vedanta separates prana tattva. According to the sankhya, the mind and organs produce by their actions five vital ethers. Prana is a modification of the senses. In their absence, it does not exist.
In a sage or a saint there are many sattva; in the soldier, politician and businessman there is a lot of rajas. Mind, intellect or buddhi is the most important of all the products of Prakriti. Feelings represent the intellect of their objects. The intellect shows them to the Purusha. Intellect distinguishes between Prakriti and Purusha. Intellect is the Prime Minister of Purusha. He brings the Purusha the realization of all that must be experienced. He seems reasonable because of the reflection of Purusha, which is very close to him, although in fact he is devoid of consciousness.
Prakriti is the root of the universe. From the Prakriti emanates buddhi, or mahat. From buddhi, ahamkara emanates, or the principle of selfishness. Out of selfishness, the ten senses, the mind, the five subtle tanmatras of sound, taste, smell, color and touch are born. From these tanmatrs there are five rough elements – earth, water, fire, air and ether.
Intelligence, intelligence and selfishness are guards. The five senses of perception, (jnana indriyas) are the gates. Intellect is a tool or organ that mediates between feelings and the soul. An object excites feelings. The mind introduces the impressions of the senses into perception. Egoism refers to the “I”. Intellect forms the concept. He turns perception into a concept and represents it to the Purusha. So there is knowledge about the object.
PUROUSHA. Purusha, or soul, is outside Prakriti. He is eternally separated from her. Purusha has no attributes, and it is omnipresent. He is not a doer. He’s a witness. Purusha is like a colorless crystal. It seems that it shines with different colors appearing before it. It is non-material. It is not the result of a combination. Therefore, he is immortal.
The innumerable purushas (souls)
Prakriti and its products are objects of enjoyment. There must be an enjoyer who represents a reasonable principle. This sensible enjoyer is Purusha, or soul.
Purusha, or soul – witness (sakshi), hermit (kaivalhalm), spectator (drashta), eyewitness (madhyastha), passive and impartial (udasina).
Different souls are fundamentally identical in nature. The knower is Purusha. Known is Prakriti. The knower is the subject, or the silent witness. The cognizable is a visible object. There is no movement for Purusha. When it reaches liberation, it does not go anywhere. There are many Purushas. If the Purushas were one, then, together with the liberation of one, the liberation of all would come. Liberation is not immersion in the Absolute, but isolation from Prakriti.
JIVA. The jiva is the “I” in conjunction with the senses. It is limited to the body. She is endowed with selfishness. Reflection of Purusha in the intellect arises as an ego, or empirical soul. It is connected with ignorance and karma. It is dependent on pleasure and suffering, action and its fruits, and revolves in a cycle of birth and death.
The jiva must be aware of the perfection of the Purusha. It must rise to the status of Purusha. She must realize the true nature of the higher Purusha. Freedom, or perfection, is a return to your true self. This is the removal of the illusion that hides your true nature.
The actions of Prakriti are directed solely for the benefit of the soul and for its satisfaction. Mother Prakriti holds a soul in her arms and shows her the whole universe play, encourages her to enjoy everything that the world can give and, finally, helps her to free herself. The Sankhya system is aimed at liberating the Purusha, or the soul, from the shackles that it has fallen into, connecting with Prakriti. This is achieved through the assimilation of jnana, or correct knowledge of the twenty-four composite principles of creation, and the proper distinction between them and the soul. There are three pramans, or means for getting the right idea about the existence of things – pratyaksha, or perception of the senses, anumana (inference, conclusion) and aptavaana (authoritative evidence).
When through the destruction of the consequences of virtue, vice, etc. there is a separation of the soul from the body, and Prakriti respectfully ceases to act, then comes the final and absolute liberation, or supreme bliss.
When the fruits of action disappear and the body, gross and subtle, disappears, then the nature of the individual soul no longer exists. The soul reaches a state called kaivalya (independence). It is free from three types of suffering.
When a person acquires perfect knowledge, virtue and vice are deprived of causal energy, but the body continues to exist for some time because of previous impulses, just as the potter’s wheel continues to spin when the potter has already finished work.
The soul is not really limited, not liberated and not relocated, but the restriction, liberation and relocation only relates to the nature of the various beings.
As a dancer, having shown herself off stage to the audience, she finishes dancing, and nature ceases to function after the Purusha, or the soul, shows herself. There is no one more modest than Prakriti, when she realizes that Purusha is looking at her. She no longer exposes herself to the Purusha, or to the soul.
The relation of the soul with nature-Prakriti is like the friendship of the lame with the blind. The travelers put a lame and blind man in the forest. They agreed to share the responsibilities of movement and observation. The lame man climbed onto the shoulders of the blind man and pointed out the road to him. The blind man was able to pass his route thanks to the instructions of his friend. The soul is like a lame person. The soul has the ability to see, but not move. Prakriti is like a blind person. Having reached the appointed place, the blind and the lame part. Similarly, Prakriti, which caused the liberation of the soul, ceases to function. The soul attains kaivalya, or supreme bliss. Therefore, after the accomplishment of their tasks, communication between them ceases. The soul finds liberation through the knowledge of Prakriti.
If suffering were natural for the Purusha, if the Purusha were not naturally free from the actions of the gunas, then liberation from rebirth would be impossible.
Linga deha, or subtle body that moves from one dense body to another during successive births, consists of intelligence, selfishness, mind, the five cognition organs, the five organs of action and the five tanmatras. The impression of actions committed in various births is preserved in a subtle body. The connection of a subtle body with a dense physical body represents the birth, the separation of the subtle from the dense physical body is death. This subtle body is destroyed by knowledge of the Purusha.
Limitation refers to Prakriti, but it is attributed to Purusha. Purusha is always free. The union of Purusha with Prakriti, caused by non-discrimination, is slavery. The inability to distinguish Purusha from Prakriti is the cause of rebirth or slavery; separation of Purusha from Prakriti through birth is liberation.